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Follow this link to the PRDA Contents page to return to the module contents.

Back to the MA: Photographic History Main Page to return to the Course contents.


Buxton, W. 2007. Sketching User Experiences. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufman

de Bono, E. 1972. Po: Beyond Yes and No New York: Simon and Schuster

de Bono, E. 1976. Practical Thinking Harmondsworth: Pelican Books

Greenberg, S., Carpendale, S., Marquardt, N., Buxton, B. 2012. Sketching User Experiences: The Workbook. Waltham, MA, USA: Morgan Kaufmann,Elsevier.

Jones, J. C. 1992. Design Methods. New York: John Wiley & Sons.(2nd Ed.)

Krippendorf, K. 2006. The Semantic Turn: A new foundation for design. London: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis.

Krug, S. 2000. Don’t Make Me Think: A Common Sense Approach to Web Usability. Indianapolis, Indiana, USA: Library, New Riders Publishing.

Nielsen, J. 1993. Usability Engineering. London: Academic Press Limited.

Norman, D. 2002. The Design of Everyday Things. New York: Basic Books (2nd Ed.)

Pheasant, S. 1996. Bodyspace: anthropometry, ergonomics and the design of work. London: Taylor & Francis (2nd Ed.)

Redish, J. 2007. Letting Go of the Words: Writing Web Content that Works. San Francisco, California, USA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Elsevier.

Snyder, C, 2003. Paper prototyping: The fast and simple technique for designing and refining the user interface. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Thomke, S. 2003. Experimentation Matters: Unlocking the potential of new technologies for innovation. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.


Applied Ergonomics

Design Studies


Ergonomics in Design

Human-Computer Interaction

Information Design Journal

International Journal of Heritage Studies

Journal of Access Services

Literary and Linguistic Computing Visual Communication

Philosophy of Photography


Archives and Museum Informatics: A database of conference research papers and discussion groups relating to digital resources in the Museum and Archives domains.

Many existing case studies of various scopes and scales are available through the Digital Curation Centre, along with Information Papers and Guides to Good Practice.

AHeSSC The Arts and Humanities e-Science Support Centre. aims to advance the use and understanding of digital methods for research and teaching

BBC Website design guidelines, 10 useful tips

DRHA: Conference Website for Digital resources in the Humanities and Arts

JISC Digital Media (formerly TASI): The JISC advisory service on how to create, use and manage digital media

Make it Digital is a similar, if less complete site from DigitalNZ

UKOLN Cultural Heritage Web Site: social networking services, digital preservation, metadata and supporting the user experience.

Web Accessibility Initiative: A Website dedicated to accessibility standards

ICTguides: A database of humanities research projects employing ICT based methods and tools, with extensive links to tools, methods and training

See also the Digital Research Tools wiki at

Usability Net

Suggested reading for usability testing

The Digital Curation Centre

The Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative:

Its members include the Library of Congress, the National Agricultural Library, the National Archives and Records Administration, the National Gallery of Art, the National Library of Medicine, the National Technical Information Service, the National Transportation Library, the Smithsonian Institution, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the U.S. Government Printing Office. The Audio-Visual Working Group will address standards and practices for sound, video, and motion picture film. Its members include the Defense Visual Information Directorate of the Department of Defense, the Library of Congress, the National Agricultural Library, the National Archives and Records Administration, the National Library of Medicine, the Smithsonian Institution, the Government Printing Office and the Voice of America.

So far they have produced "DIGITIZATION ACTIVITIES - Project Planning and Management Outline". The aim of this document is to define activities relating to the digitization of original cultural materials, and to outline general steps for planning and management of this process. The activities described in this document address library/archival issues, imaging and conversion work, and IT infrastructure issues in particular, and were identified using project management outlines from several organizations with significant experience working with cultural materials. This document defines "digitization" as a complete process, and covers all project components from content selection through delivery of digitized objects into a repository environment.

You can access the document from FADGI homepage - or go directly to the document page at -

Dublin Core metatdata elements are described at

A good description of metadata standards for describing digital objects can be found at, part of the NISO guidance on building good digital collections.

Handbook on the Preservation of Web Resources, commissioned by the JISC from UKOLN and ULCC's Digital Archives. The Handbook is full of useful information, including strategies which help you decide what to keep, how to keep it and how to ensure ongoing access to it for future generations. databases. Step by step guides to designing and building databases including tutorials and exercises.

The Max Plank Institute [1] offers advice on copyright issues (Germany).

And so does [2](Canada).

You can look at to determine when items enter the public domain in the U.S. You can learn more about copyright and the public domain in "Copyright & Cultural Institutions: Guidelines for Digitization for U.S. Libraries, Archives, and Museums," available for sale on Amazon or as a free PDF download at

A free book which addresses copyright in the 21st century in an educational context is available online [3] from the Commonwealth of Learning. Written by Julien Hofman, Emeritus Associate Professor at the University of Cape Town, Introducing copyright, explains copyright protection and what it means for copyright holders and users, including sections on digital rights management, open licences, software patents and copyright protection for works of traditional knowledge. It also attempts predict how technology will change the publishing and entertainment industries that depend on copyright.

The UK Intellectual Property Office offers diagnostic exercises to assess your copyright position

The museums copyright blog [4] is for questions and answers about museum related copyright issues.

The digital copyright discussion list [5] is another useful place to raise copyright issues. although it is US based so the views expressed there understandably reflect the US legal position.

Although developed for teachers and students who want to reuse material created by others, the JISC Web2rights diagnostic tool offers guidance on copyright isues from a UK perspective. See the explanatory video [6].

Flickr's page which explains their policy on copyright, image usage, public domain, etc. is also useful because it has links to the individual policies of the institutions that have posted images on Flickr's website.

Creative Commons: Creative Commons provides free tools that let authors, scientists, artists, and educators easily mark their creative work with the freedoms they want it to carry. You can use CC to change your copyright terms from "All Rights Reserved" to "Some Rights Reserved." There is also a useful discussion of the difficult issues surrounding the meaning of "commercial" and "non-commercial" use at

Copyright Watch is the first comprehensive and up-to-date online repository of national and regional copyright laws. Users can find links by choosing a continent or by searching a country name.

Experimental Design and Interpretation: Peter Norvig's thoughful essay on issues in the design of experiments.

Photographic History Resources

Knowledge Media Design's photohistory resource page (

Ellen Bahr's list of early photohistory resources and links (

George Eastman House Museum's Notes on Photographs wiki, a freely available educational website and reference resource dedicated to illustrating key attributes of a photographer's works. The site's main component is a wiki designed to compile research, to be a forum for discussion, and to be collaboratively contributed to and used by collectors, curators, archivists, conservators, and scholars.

The Historic New Orleans Collection online catalogue makes the institution's entire catalogued collection of books, manuscripts, maps, photographs, art, and ephemera accessible to the public. The online catalogue presents three ways to search: by keyword, advanced search, and collections themes. Researchers will also have access to more than 17,000 images, viewable in a gallery where they can be enlarged or compared side-by-side. The catalogue also features hyperlinks to PDF finding aids for manuscript collections and when cataloging permits researchers can navigate through the hierarchy of archival description. The catalogue allows the bookmarking of items to create a temporary list of items across multiple searches. At present bookmarked items are not saved once the catalogue is closed in your browser.

Midley History of Early photography website presents academic research articles on the early history of photography published by R. D. Wood between 1970 and 2008.

Resources for putting stuff online

You can build a simple wiki (like this one) using free resources such as pbwiki [7].

Slideshare is a free site for uploading powerpoint presentations to which you can add audio commentaries.

You may want to just deposit files somewhere. Some free alternatives are [8], ADrive [9] and Internet Archive [10].

There are of course photograph and video sharing sites such as Flickr [11]and YouTube [12].

These are all third party sites and you should read their terms and conditions carefully before signing up to them.

Silverback [13] is a suite of software for capturing reactions to Web sites (but no eye tracking though) that offers a free 30 day trial.

If you know of other really useful resources/sites please add them in here:

Paul Goodman's Powerpoint from November Bradford visit File:DMU Digitisation Session (November 2009).ppt.ppt

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